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Pathological morphology of human and also animal illness

  • Patološka morfologija humanih i animalnih bolesti
  • Prostate cancer cells: Stage prediction by preoperative biopsies
  • Mikuz G. Rogatsch H.
  • Institute of Pathology, Innsbruck, Austria.

The lump stage as well as the quality of malignancy are the most vital specifications forthe prognostic and healing evaluation of the prostate cancer cells at the moment.To distinguish localized (pT2) from capsule-transgressing (pT3) cancers prior to beginning therapy would certainly, therefore, be a vital goal.

The scientific approaches made use of for this function either have a low precision or can just be done with an extremely expensive equipment offered only in couple of specialized hospitals.Transrectal core needle biopsy is however, done in all clients with raised PSA and/or other signs suspicious for prostate cancer cells.

Numerous authors attempted to determinate the lumps’ stage by morphological and morphometrical evaluation of such biopsies. We examined 90 prostatectomy specimens and matching needle core biopsies.

One fifty percent of the patients (N= 45) had localized carcinoma (pT2) as well as the other half of prostatectomy specimens revealed an extraprostatic lump extension (pT3). The Gleason rating executed on core needle biopsies revealed only a minimal difference between the two phases.

A basic method for predicting the expansion of prostate cancer is to count the variety of biopsies which include carcinoma.

The method functions, nevertheless, only if at the very least 6 biopsies are perFormed. The linear size of cancer (in mm) in needle core biopsies can also be used as anticipating specification. In our material pT2 carcinomas showed an ordinary size of 3,4 ~ 2 mm in the biopsies, whereas the ordinary length of cancers with extracapsular extension was 20 ± 5 mm (p< 0,000 I ).

The favored method utilized by a variety of writers seems to be the dimension of the loved one cancer volume (vol%) of cancer in the core needle biopsies. In our product the mean family member volume of carcinoma tissue in the needle core biopsy of people with pT2 stage in prostatectomy sampling was 4,9 ± 2,7 vol% pT3 cancers in prostatectomy product showed an average loved one volume of 30,1 ± 23% in the biopsy (p< 0,0001 ). A

technique previously utilized in our laboratory was the assessment of the microvessel density in biopsy specimens pT2 cancers showed a substantially reduced vessel density than pT3. In our viewpoint the measurement of the loved one volume of cancer in core needle biopsies meets all these standards in the most effective possible means.

Moreover, the approach is not time consuming and does not call for special devices – a pathologist requires no greater than a straightforward leader to gauge the size of the cancer along with of the single biopsy chips.

  • Indications, method and also problems of prostatic needle biopsies.
  • Reljić A, Spajić B, Kraljić I.
  • Division of Urology “Sestre milosrdnice” University Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia.

Prostatic adenocarcinoma is the third most common malignant growth in Croatian male populace and also stands for a significant public health trouble. Concerning 85% of prostatic adenocarcinomas are detected in advanced stage.Two years earlier, a multidisciplinary strategy to the early medical diagnosis of this illness has been introduced at the Urological Facility,” Sestre milosrdnice” University Hospital in Zagreb.

The aim of this job was to increase the proportion of patients identified in earlier stages of the disease.We present our current protocol for developing the sign for prostatic needle core biopsy. The experiences on I 34 individuals worrying the preoperative therapy, bioptic strategies and problems of the treatment are shown.

We wrap up that prostatic needle core biopsies are required for the early diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma.This procedure could be done in local anesthetic with marginal complications.

The connection between clinical and also pathohistological fndings in prostatic needle biopsies.

  • Reljić A, Marković-Puač Lj, Spajić B, Tarle M, Čupić H, Kraljić I, Krušlin B, Belicza M.
  • Departments of Urology, Pathology and Oncology and also Nuclear Medicine.
  • ” Sestre milosrdnice” Teaching hospital, Zagreb, Croatia.

Purpose Prostatic needle core biopsy is confirmative approach for prostate cancer medical diagnosis. During a two-year period at Clinic of Urology, Teaching Hospital “Sestre milosrdnice”, 250 people were examined for prostate carcinoma (COMPUTER). The purpose of this research study was to evaluate scientific and also pathohistological searchings for in prostatic needle core byopsies in regard of very early diagnosis of the disease.

Techniques The populace consisted of ambulatory people over half a century old with lower urinary system symptoms. All patients were examined according to method for very early diagnosis of computer. The clients went through digitorectal exam (DRE) as well as serum prostate specifc antigen (PSA-Tandem R) dimension.

lndication for needle core biopsy were positive DRE and/or PSA worth over 4 ng/mL. These. patients underwent transrectal ultrasound examination (TRUS). All visible leasions of outer prostatic zone were biopsied and sextant biopsy was taken. If no leasion was identified, random sextant biopsy was executed.

Results According to over mentioned requirements I 34 of 250 people undertook biopsy (53,6%). DRE was positive in 67 (50.0%) andTRUS in 70 (52.0%) patients.The PSA level was below 4 ng/mL in 20 of biopsied clients (I 4.9%), in between 4 and I 0 in 66 (49.2%) and also over I 0 ng/mL in 48 (35.8%) of people.

Prostatic cancer was found in 39 (29. I %), high-grade PIN (HGP) in I 9 (I 4. I %) as well as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in 76 (56.7%) of individuals. PC with low Gleason rating (2-4) remained in 17 PC (44.0%), with Gleason rating 5-7 in 8 clients (20.0%) and with high Gleason rating in 14 (36.0%) individuals.

In cases with well diferentiated cancers PSA was 47.7 ng/ mL (range 5.8-105.0), moderatelly distinguished cancers cells 68.8 ng/mL (range 17.9-131.0) and in inadequately distinguished PC I 8.4 ng/mL (range 0.02-49.8). Ordinary PSA for computer clients was 43.8 ng/mL, for HGP I0.9 ng/mL as well as 7.6 ng/mL for BPH patients.Volume of the prostate with cancer cells was about 25.0% lower than for BPH. Of 39 identified PC I 2 patients (30.7%) had indicator for radical prostatectomy as well as medical understaging was 58.3%. There was upgrading of 56.0% of PC in radical prostatectomy samplings comparing with needle core biopsies.

Sensitivity of DRE was 92.0%, specificity 67.0%, favorable anticipating worth (PPV) as well as 54.0% and also adverse predictive value (NPV) 96.0%. Practically identical results were gotten forTRUS. HGP was thought of, by ways ofTRUS, in 45.0%. PC was found 5 I. 0% and HGP in 10.0% of hypoechoic peripheral area sores. For PSA worth above 4.0 ng/mL sensitivity was 95.0%, specifoity just I 9.0%, and PPV 32.0%. For PSA worth above I 0.0 ng/mL, level of sensitivity was 69.0%, uniqueness 78.0%, and also PPV 56.0%.

Conclusions No single test (DRE, PSA, TRUS) had analysis abilities for PC and also HGP DRE as well as PSA need to be thought about as very first line device for early medical diagnosis of computer. Although we have biopsied virtually every DRE positive and also essentially all patients with PSA over I 0 ng/mL, there is enough area for lowering the number of unneccessary biopsies.

  • Lump neoangiogenesis in prostatic carcinoma.
  • Volavšek M, Mašera A, Ovčak Z.
  • Institute of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Introduction Tumor neoangiogenesis has actually shown its prognostic value in deadly growths of different body organs. The organization with disease development and metastatic spread has also been displayed in prostatic cancer after extreme prostatectomy.

Goal The objective of our retrospective research study was to disclose its value in incidental prostatic cancer aftertransurethral resection (TURP). We examined all ICP identified at the Institute of Pathology, Medical Professors in Ljubljana in years 1985-89.

Approaches To determinate exactly how microvessels correlate with the degree of tumor differetiation determined histopathologically as well as with Gleason score, phase of disease, and the time of survival in at the very least 6 years after diagnosis, we counted microvessels within the first carcinoma in 68 patients.

Microvessels were higlighted by immunostaining endothelial cells for factorVlll-related antigen as well as counted in a x200 microscopic lense field (0,8012 mm2) in the most energetic areas of neovascularisation, Neoangiogenesis and level of growth differentiation were after that associated between primary lumps and also rebiopsies in I 0 clients. Level of growth distinction was also correlated with the moment the condition development happened.

Results Greater microvessel matters were connected with lower level oftumor distinction (p= 0,005), Gleason rating (p= 0,001 ), stage of condition in main growths (p= 0,003), and also survival of the people (p= 0,05). The moment of disease progression in I 0 rebiopsied patients showed association with lower degree of growth distinction (p= 0,004; 0,006). Microvessel matters were substantially higher in re-biopsies comparing to first growths (p= 0,006), however no distinctions could be observed in the level of differentiation.

Verdict Our results revealed that the decision of microvessel density in TURP biopsy specimens of ICP maintains its prognostic value already demonstrated in extreme prostatectomy samplings of scientific prostatic cancer.

A research of transvesical prostatectomy: Retrospective-prospective evaluation of 230 Cases.

  • Božić Z, Kraus O, Duančić V.
  • Division of Urology “Sestre milosrdnice” Teaching hospital, Zagreb, Croatia Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention and Recovery, Zagreb, Croatia.

An overall of 230 guys going through transvesical prostatectomy (TP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), with glands estimated to weigh more than 60 g, were examined retrospectively as well as followed-up one year afterthe operation.Age, signs, examination results, histopathological fmdings, postoperative problems and also extra operations were evaluated. Reported dysuric signs were obstructive in 47,8%, irritative in 26,5%, and incorporated in 20,4% of the clients.

Hematuria was the primary symptom in 5,2% of the individuals. BPH was histologicaly determined in 87,0%, incidental carcinoma of the prostate in 4,3%, and different types of prostatitis in 8,7% situations.

Issues of TP had a lethal end result in 2,2%, hemorrhaging needing additional procedure in 6, I %, epididymitis in 4,8%, injury infection in 2,6%, urethral stricture in 0,9%, incontinence in 0,9% and also postoperative urinary system retention without urethral blockage in 2,2% of the people, One of the most frequent reason for reoperation was hemorrhaging in 66,7% situations.

Uretheroscopic measurement of the size of the prostatic urethra, dimension ofthe post-micturition residual volumen and intravenous urography can not be used as an analysis standards in the choice of patients forTP Digital anal assessment of the prostate and cystoscopy maintain their diagnostic importance, while ultrasonography provides the very best diagnostic possibilites. Substantial drawbacks ofTP are high prices of postoperative blood loss and early postoperative lethality.